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Nutrition/diet

1. Introduction

Nutrition and dietary habits are indispensable activities for sustaining life, for the healthy growth of children, and for people to lead healthy and happy lives. From the point of view of physical health, it is necessary to ingest the nutrients necessary to maintain a proper nutritional state. (QOL) is also closely related.

In the 50 years since World War II, the Japanese diet has undergone a major change from the conventional dietary pattern of high salt, high carbohydrates, and low animal protein to an increase in animal protein and fat. , contributed to the decrease in infections and cerebral hemorrhage1 ) . On the other hand, on the other hand, an increase in lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes has become a serious problem at present, and the onset of these diseases is often related to nutrition and dietary habits. Therefore, it is necessary to shift nutritional measures from the conventional nutrient deficiencies to ones that focus on overnutrition.

In addition, along with changes in the social environment surrounding dietary habits, we have seen an increase in the rate of skipping breakfast, excessive dependence on processed foods and specific foods, excessive dieting, and loss of family harmony around the dining table. Currently, there are concerns about the impact on physical and mental health. In order to realize people’s healthy and good eating habits, comprehensive efforts including the creation of an environment that supports individual behavior change are required.

2. Basic policy

Nutrition and eating habits are closely related to many lifestyle-related diseases, and are also closely related to QOL in daily life. Therefore, in order to improve the health and QOL of the people, the goal is to realize a healthy diet that is physically, mentally and socially good.

In other words, the aim is to correct health and nutritional conditions, and to secure equal opportunities and resources for all citizens to sufficiently develop and exercise the ability to practice good dietary habits.

When setting goals in the field of nutrition and dietary habits, in order to achieve the ultimate goal of improving health and QOL, 1) “appropriate nutrient (food) intake” to improve “nutritional status”, 2) appropriate Since it is necessary to “change behavior” for nutrient (food) intake, and 3) “environment creation” to support individual behavior change, it is divided into three stages2) .

3. Current status and goals (1) Relationship with disease

and health – nutritional status, nutrient (food) intake levels

Stroke, some cancers (colon cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer), diabetes, osteoporosis, etc. Nutrient intake levels associated with these diseases include energy (balanced with expenditure), fat, sodium, potassium, dietary fiber, antioxidant vitamins, and calcium.

Excessive energy intake needs to be evaluated in terms of the balance between energy intake and consumption, but it is difficult to evaluate this balance in terms of energy amount. and adult obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0) increased from 15.8% 20 years ago to 24.3% in 1997, especially among men in their 20s to 60s. It accounts for 25.2%. Obesity is a risk factor for various diseases, and prevention of obesity leads to prevention of disease development. Therefore, the percentage of obese people in men in their 20s to 60s should be 15% or less, and women in their 40s to 60s should be 20% or less. The goal is to In addition, obesity prevention has been an issue since childhood 3). Since it is increasing, we aim to stop this increasing trend and reduce it to 7% or less. On the other hand, the increase in underweight (BMI < 18.5) among young women is remarkable, and the number of women in their 20s has increased from 14.2% 20 years ago to 23.3%.

As fat energy ratio increases, the incidence of arteriosclerotic heart disease and the mortality rate of breast cancer and colorectal cancer have been observed to increase. 4) . The fat energy ratio has shown a rapid increase of nearly three times over the 30 years since the 1950s, and the increase is remarkable in young adults, reaching 27.1% per day on average among those in their 20s to 40s in 1997. Therefore, the goal is to reduce the fat energy ratio of this age group to an average of 25% or less. In addition, since the fat energy ratio has already reached an average of 31.0% between the ages of 7 and 14, it is also important to suppress the increase.

Regarding salt, from the viewpoint of preventing hypertension, 6g or less is recommended in other countries, and less than 10g is recommended in Japan5) . In 1997, the average daily intake for adults was 13.5 g, which is still excessive.

In addition, intake of potassium, dietary fiber, antioxidant vitamins, etc. is thought to work effectively in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer6)-8) , but it depends on foods that are fortified with specific ingredients. Basically, it is desirable to take it as a regular meal instead of as a regular meal. Analysis of the relationship between these intakes and food intake reveals that the intake of vegetables contributes to a high percentage. It is estimated that 350-400g of vegetables is required for proper intake9) , so the goal is to aim for an average of 350g or more. As for calcium, an intake of 600 to 700 mg is required for adults10)., The average intake for adults in 1997 was 571 mg. Milk and dairy products, beans, and green and yellow vegetables contribute significantly to the appropriate intake of calcium9 ) . Aim for 130g, 100g, and 120g or more respectively.

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